Washington deepens trade, considers generalized preferential access.
YANGON, Myanmar — Myanmar could get broad duty-free access to the US market by year’s end as the United States tries to deepen trade and military ties with the former military dictatorship.
Acting US Trade Representative Demetrios Marantis said the US could waive import duties on thousands of goods from Myanmar, including agricultural products, handicrafts, and some garments, by the end of this year under a program designed to help poor countries.
“It’s a great opportunity for both sides,” he said.
His office announced last week that Myanmar and Laos are being considered for preferential access to the US market under a program called GSP, or the Generalized System of Preferences, designed to help poor countries develop. A public hearing on the issue is scheduled for June 4.
The move illustrates how deeply US policy toward the former pariah state has changed. Until November, the US banned imports from Myanmar. In response to rapid political reforms, Washington has suspended most sanctions, though it maintains bans on arms sales and gem imports, as well as a targeted list of sanctioned companies and individuals believed to have ties to the old regime.
The US has moved more slowly than the European Union and Australia in normalizing relations, which some business groups argue puts US investors at a competitive disadvantage. The European Union revoked its economic and political sanctions against Myanmar on April 22. Australia revoked its travel and financial sanctions in June 2012.
As America and other Western countries deepen commercial ties with Myanmar, they are also pushing to strengthen their engagement with Myanmar’s armed forces, which have a long history of brutality and continue to wield considerable, but opaque power in the country.
Acting Assistant Secretary of State Joseph Yun told Congress April 25 that the US is “looking at ways to support nascent military engagement” with Myanmar, as way of encouraging “further political reforms.”
He said the US is eager to expose Myanmar’s military to human rights standards and international humanitarian law, though Washington continues to press for progress on human rights and a clear end to military ties with North Korea.
Myanmar’s commander in chief has made it clear that the armed forces, which hold a quarter of seats in Parliament under the constitution, intend to continue to play a political role in the country. The prominence of the military was reinforced last month when the quasi-civilian government – whose top leadership is dominated by former military men – had to call in the army to quell religious riots that killed at least 40 people.
US officials argue that by strengthening commercial and military links, America can encourage reform and better influence policy.
Myanmar businesses say warmer relations with the West can create thousands of jobs and bolster foreign reserves.
“We welcome the lifting of EU sanctions and the restoration of GSP status,” said Myint Soe, chairman of the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association and vice chairman of the Union of Myanmar Chamber of Commerce and Industry, a lobby group. “This will be a big boost to Myanmar’s garment industry.”
Some human rights groups, however, argue that Western nations are moving too swiftly to re-engage, thus losing valuable leverage to pressure the government to address ongoing human rights violations.
Washington revoked Myanmar’s GSP privileges in 1989, over concerns about labour rights.
Marantis said he emphasized the importance of ending forced labour and allowing workers to organize, as well as protecting intellectual property – all conditions for gaining GSP approval – in his meetings with Myanmar officials this week. He said he also began negotiating a formal framework for trade and investment dialogue with top Myanmar officials on April 25.
Phil Robertson, deputy director of Human Rights Watch’s Asia division, urged the U.S. to thoroughly examine Myanmar’s progress on labour rights. He said there are still significant problems with forced labour, particularly in remote areas, and some unions have difficulty organizing.
An overly hasty reinstatement of GSP, he said, “would undermine the ability of the US government to push for improved respect for labour rights.”
He said military engagement was “clearly premature.” Human Rights Watch says the military continues to target civilians and engage in torture, sexual slavery and extrajudicial killings.
“Why is there a presumption the Burmese military wants to reform?” he said. “What’s the evidentiary basis for that? Is this the US government and international community just seeing what they want to see?”